In order to evaluate water quality, laboratory workers need to analyze the chemical constituents of water. At the same time, they have to consider the interactions between each constituent and the factor of photolysis when choosing the sample vial. It is better to shorten the sample’s storage time and exposure time to light and heat. In addition, biological activity must be considered. When choosing the sample vial, laboratory workers also need to think about the adaption to drastic changes in temperature, the resistance to rupture, the sealing property, the volume, the shape, the mass, the price, the reusability, etc. We normally use sample vials that are made of polyethylene, fluoroplastics, and carbonic ester to store inorganic samples. The frequently-used high-density polyethylene sample vial is propitious to the analysis of silicon dioxide, sodium, total alkalinity, chloride, fluoride, conductivity, pH, and hardness of the water. The brown sample vial is fit for a photoactive substance. Dissolved oxygen and BOD5 must be stored in special sample vials. The stainless steel sample vial is suited to keep high-temperature or high-pressure samples. Glass sample vials are commonly used for the storage of organic and biological samples. While plastic sample vials are for radionuclides and water with glass composition.